1. Introduction
  2. Performance requirements - theory, practice, and teaching
  3. Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents
  4. Maneuvers on the Closed Practice Area
  5. Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver
  6. Traffic behavior
  7. Road conditions
  8. Basic rules for driving
  9. Maneuvers on the road
  10. Special risk factors in traffic
  11. Maneuvers at driving technical facility

The easy theory book

Basic rules for driving

It's good to know some basic rules before you go driving.

Instructions for traffic

In this chapter, you will learn where the traffic law applies and what the individual laws and rules mean for how you should drive a car.

Validity of the traffic act

When driving a car, you must follow the Traffic Act and the other laws and regulations for driving in traffic. The rules apply on all streets and roads, on cycle paths and sidewalks, in squares and on bridges, and elsewhere – that is, everywhere there is traffic, including both public places and private areas.

You must follow the various instructions for driving wherever you are: these include signs, lane markings, and traffic lights. These markings may not always be permanent but can also include temporary markings or barriers, such as those used during detours or road construction.

If you encounter the police, their instructions take precedence, and if it's the home guard or emergency services at work/in uniform giving directions, you should follow them. There may also be individuals wearing vests, 'traffic officials' at major sports events, and they, like the aforementioned, have the authority to direct traffic and ensure its safe flow. Therefore, you should also be able to recognize and understand the meaning of the signs used for traffic instructions.

The signs include: no entry, no entry for vehicles in both directions, one-way traffic, motor vehicles prohibited, tractors prohibited, motorized agricultural equipment prohibited, and carrying dangerous goods prohibited.

Driving license categories and entitlement

When you have a driving license for a car (category B), you are entitled to drive:

  • Passenger or goods vehicle weighing up to 3,500 kg. The passenger vehicle may accommodate a maximum of eight passengers in addition to the driver.
  • Vehicle towing a trailer, where the permitted total weight does not exceed 750 kg.
  • Vehicle towing a trailer with a total weight exceeding 750 kg, provided that the combined weight of the vehicle and trailer does not exceed 3,500 kg.
  • Three-wheeled motorcycle, three-wheeled car, ATV, tractor, motorized equipment, and both small and large mopeds.

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Basic traffic rules

You need to learn the basic rules of the road so you can drive safely in traffic.

Foundation of traffic law

The most important rule in traffic law, also known as the foundation of traffic law, is that you must drive considerately. This means showing care, being aware of other road users, and not bothering, obstructing, or disturbing others. It can be divided into two main categories: showing consideration and showing special consideration. Consideration applies to everyone near the road or living nearby. Special consideration applies to school patrols, the elderly, children, and disabled individuals. Here, you must be particularly attentive to driving correctly and considerately. In general, you should always drive in a way that doesn't harm others, bother others, or make traffic dangerous or unsafe for others.

Danger, inconvenience, and unnecessary inconvenience

You pose a danger to others if your driving creates a risk of accidents/collisions. You cause inconvenience to others if, while driving, you force others in traffic to make room, yield, stop, or speed up, or if they are generally bothered by your driving. Unnecessary inconvenience means that you bother others without reason. When driving closely, in a queue, having to brake quickly, or stop/pull over, you can say there is a good reason. The reason could be safety or a suddenly arising situation where you need to react. But if there is no good reason, you should refrain from doing so, as you should consider others in traffic. Always remember the foundation of traffic law.


When you want to use the horn or indicators, including hazard lights, you should know that it is only in case of imminent danger, for example, if there is suddenly a queue on a road, or other road users perform sudden and dangerous maneuvers on the road. Never use the horn or indicators to show that you are angry or frustrated with other drivers.


You use the light when you need to pull out from a roadside, and before you turn or swerve. You should also use indicators when changing lanes and simply shifting slightly sideways so others can see what you are about to do – namely change position on the road. You should also do this on the motorway and always look carefully, as it is not enough to just indicate. Always make sure to signal and give signs in good time. When you have finished turning or changing lanes, you should turn off the indicator. If you are driving in a roundabout and need to exit at the first side road, you should signal right. If you need to exit the roundabout at the last side road, you can signal left while in the roundabout, and right when exiting the roundabout.

If you need to stop or quickly reduce speed significantly, you should signal with the stop light. If you are on the motorway and there is unexpected traffic congestion or sudden danger, you should use the hazard lights. On other roads outside built-up areas, you can also use the hazard lights if sudden dangerous situations arise.

Use of lights

When driving in the dark or during the time when lights are required, you must, of course, have lights on. Additionally, you should have low beam or daytime running lights outside the time when lights are required. On almost all cars, it turns on automatically; otherwise, you should ensure that it is turned on.

Priority passage for certain traffic

When driving a car, you must also observe what is called 'priority passage.' This means that you must yield to certain types of traffic. Naturally, you must yield and give way to emergency vehicles, so keep an eye on the rearview mirror when you hear sirens or observe what other drivers are doing. You must also not drive very close to an accident site, so as not to obstruct rescue operations. (So-called rubbernecking is of course completely unacceptable).

  • Groups of children, even if they are supervised by, for example, a teacher, leader, or educator
  • Groups of people from the Armed Forces on a march
  • Columns from the emergency services (fire or accident)
  • Processions, such as funeral processions after a hearse
  • Military parades or demonstrations.

Persons and goods

You should not load your car more than 2.55 meters in width, longer than 12 meters, and higher than 4 meters. You should also be aware that the car must not weigh more than the permitted total weight: 3,500 kg for passenger cars. If in doubt or cannot remember the numbers, check the registration certificate for what is legal.

Persons or goods must not be placed in such a way that you do not have a clear view and sufficient opportunity to maneuver the car. The same goes for passengers or luggage inside the car. It is also not legal to have passengers in the car (or on the hood or roof) who may endanger themselves.

The most important safety equipment in the car is the seat belt, and if you use it, the risk of being seriously injured or killed in an accident is 50 percent lower. Many people do not use the seatbelt for short, quick trips. It is no less dangerous to drive without a seatbelt on a short trip than on a long one. The statistics show that. Some believe that airbags are enough. But airbags are only really effective if you also wear a seatbelt.

The people in the car must wear seat belts. If you are driving with children in the car at all, there is a lot of safety equipment you need to know how it works, and you should check that it is approved and labeled. There is a big difference in quality, so check the Consumer Council's website to get an overview of what is a good purchase for you and your children or those you drive with in the car, under 15 years old.

One in three passengers in the backseat chooses not to buckle up, and here you should know that it is a great danger to those sitting in the front. Everyone in the car under the age of 15 is responsible for wearing a seatbelt. If anyone is not wearing a seatbelt, you will be fined, and you will also receive points on your driver's license. Also, make sure the headrest is adjusted to fit your or the passenger's height.

There are some good rules to follow when loading a car correctly. Place the heaviest items at the bottom and at the front. Pack so that the luggage or load cannot slide forward or tip over when you turn or brake. You should keep the turn signals clear so others can see when you give signals. If that is not possible, such as when you have a trailer and bicycles on the back, you should use what is called a light pole, where there are also a license plate and rear lights. It requires a trailer hitch. If the load covers the license plate, you must use a third license plate, which is approved. It must be placed so that it is easy to read. If you are driving during lighting time, the license plate must be illuminated.

There is a difference in how you should mark your load if it extends more than 1 meter beyond the car in front or behind or more than 15 cm beyond the sides. If you are driving privately, you must hang a cloth that others can clearly see. If you are driving commercially, you must have a white cylinder with red stripes.

When it is during lighting time, you must, no matter if it is privately or in a business context, have the white cylinder on the load. You must also have lights: white in front and red in the back. Finally, you should know that if you spill or drop something from the load, you must clean up immediately if it poses a risk to traffic. If you do not tie the load securely or otherwise secure your goods properly, you may be fined and may even have your driver's license revoked, as loose cargo can be a significant risk to others in traffic. If you need to transport hazardous goods, you must follow some special rules for that.

If the car and trailer are inspection-free, it means that you do not need an inspector to look at the car and trailer together before driving with a trailer. If you have a car that is so old that it has a 6-V-lighting system, the two things must be inspected together. Check the registration certificate. You must not hang things from the car (sled or handcart), and of course, you must not pull people on skis, skateboards, or similar behind the car.

If your engine stops

You may risk your engine stopping while driving. If this happens, there are some things you need to do and be aware of. It can be easy to become very stressed, especially if it happens on a busy road. You should get the car off the road/traffic area as soon as possible. This can be done by your own efforts or with the help of roadside assistance.

Until help arrives, make sure to place your warning triangle, which should be in the car, so that others can see that you have stopped completely. If the car is a danger or inconvenience to traffic, the warning triangle should be placed at least 50 meters before the car on a regular road and at least 100 meters before on a motorway. It is also a good idea to supplement with hazard lights. If the car has managed to get into the emergency lane, you do not need to put up the triangle or turn on the hazard lights, but many still prefer to do so.

You can generally use hazard lights to warn cars coming from behind on a motorway. Otherwise, only when there is 'other sudden danger', such as a pedestrian in the emergency lane or a cyclist on the motorway. On other roads, you can do the same, i.e., use hazard lights to warn other drivers. If you experience engine failure, or if your car breaks down at a level crossing or other crossing with tracks, you should - as best you can - try to warn the train driver about the danger.

If you are driving abroad - Italy, Spain, Portugal, and France - you must wear a safety vest if you have broken down (engine failure, puncture) and need to go out onto the road with the warning triangle. Therefore, have a safety vest in the car when driving outside of Denmark.

We have gone through rules for trailers, and it was mentioned that you are not allowed to tow anything or anyone behind the car. However, there is one exception, namely if you want to tow another car that needs to be towed away or helped to start. However, you must never tow other cars on a motorway or expressway; a towing vehicle must be used. You must use a sturdy rope or pole to tow, and if the distance between you and the one you are towing is over 2 meters, the rope must be marked. It must be no longer than 4 meters. Both you and the driver of the towed vehicle must have driver's licenses, and you must not drive at more than 30 km/h. The car you are towing must be able to brake and steer. If it cannot, a professional 'sweep blade' is required.

Traffic accidents

If you are involved in a traffic accident, you must stop the car and assist those who have been injured. Naturally, you must not drive away from the accident scene before the situation is assessed and help is summoned, etc.

There is a short list you should follow in accidents:

  • Stop the car
  • Assist the injured and involved, and assess who needs help the most
  • Ask for help from other motorists if you have difficulty helping
  • Secure the site (remove cars, people, and objects from the risk zone)
  • Provide name and address if requested by other involved parties.

If someone is injured, there are several things you need to know:

  • When you call the police, state where the accident occurred.
  • You must inform if there are any particularly dangerous situations: trapped individuals, fire, or hazardous materials.
  • Also, indicate how many people have been injured.
  • Provide your location and your phone number.

Mark the accident site so that other motorists do not drive into the crashed vehicles, injured persons, or similar – and stop traffic or divert it if necessary.

If the accident is so severe that someone has been killed or seriously injured, do not move anything or anyone. Nothing should be removed, but you may get the vehicle away from the traffic.

You must have completed a course in traffic-related first aid before the theory test, so you are also aware of the basic rules for first aid if you should encounter or be involved in an accident.

It is possible to damage others' property, traffic signs, or other 'equipment' on the road. If this happens, it must be fixed immediately. If you cannot do it, it is important to inform the police as soon as possible.

In general, the police make a report if:

  • Someone is injured, requiring medical assistance.
  • It is estimated that there is damage of over 50,000 DKK to a car/vehicle or 5,000 DKK to property.
  • There are individuals involved who are not permanent residents of Denmark.
  • The police themselves are involved.
  • The Road Traffic Act has been significantly violated.

If you are not directly involved in the accident but pass by, you should also assess if you can help. If there is already assistance, you do not need to stop. Remember to reduce speed under all circumstances.

Insurance obligation

If you are involved in the accident yourself, by being hit by someone, try to obtain evidence that you are the victim. If the other party, for example, has failed to yield unconditionally or to yield to the right, has run a red light, reversed, made a U-turn, or turned left in front of you, then the responsibility lies with the other party.

Get confirmation from the other party or through witnesses of what happened. If you get hold of an ambulance, the police automatically come and make a report, ensuring clarity about the course of events and your legal position. But if neither the police nor an ambulance is necessary, as mentioned, it is important that you get a signature on what happened so that you do not incur large expenses with deductible, premium increases, or other consequences.

Be alert to whether the other party is intoxicated by alcohol or under the influence of drugs.

Basically, you should try to document as much as possible with the other party's signature so that the process afterwards is easier. You do this in the following way:

  1. Ask the other party to show identification (name, address, social security number), and write down the car's registration number.
  2. Write down what happened – as told by the other party, not just yourself. Get a signature on it. You can create a note with time, place, circumstances (speed, where it happened, and person behind the wheel). What is the damage, and what happened (who did what)? Possible witness details (name, address, phone). Remember date and signature from both parties.

When you own a car, you must have liability insurance so that others can have their car and personal injuries covered.

Transfer of vehicle to others

You should be aware that you are not allowed to entrust your car to anyone who does not have a valid driver's license, otherwise insurance coverage may be voided.