1. Introduction
  2. Performance requirements - theory, practice, and teaching
  3. Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents
  4. Maneuvers on the Closed Practice Area
  5. Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver
  6. Traffic behavior
  7. Road conditions
  8. Basic rules for driving
  9. Maneuvers on the road
  10. Special risk factors in traffic
  11. Maneuvers at driving technical facility

The easy theory book

Road conditions

There are several factors that can affect safety when driving. It can be the road, weather, road conditions, or other road users.

Road conditions and safety

There are limits to how safe roads can be built, and furthermore, it also depends on how you drive on them.

The things you learn in theory should be applicable in practical training on the road. The safety design of roads.

In general, it can be said that there are always limits to how safe the road is. There will always be a need for you to be attentive, whether you are driving on a narrow road with many bends or in large intersections or on a major highway.

Limits to road safety

In general, it can be said that there are always limits to how safe the road is. There will always be a need for you to be attentive, whether you are driving on a narrow road with many bends or in large intersections or on a major highway.

Utilization of roads

When driving on the road, you should always consider the maximum speed limit. You should not drive faster than you can accommodate the road layout, safety distance, and other drivers who may make unexpected mistakes. The fact that there is a maximum speed limit does not mean that you should drive as fast as it indicates (or as others should). Rather, it means that it is possible if conditions allow. That's an important distinction.

It also means that even if there is safety on the road such as stripes, safety features, or barriers on the sides, it is your responsibility as a driver to drive safely. They may fail (e.g., blinkers), and there is also the weather and other drivers to consider.

Risk factors on the roads

You should know that risk on the road involves surroundings, car equipment, road layout, and assessment of conditions that could lead to accidents. You should also understand how your driving may be affected if the road is slippery or in any other condition where you don't have the usual grip you're accustomed to.

Characteristics of risk factors

What can make the road unsafe? You should be able to assess the following factors when evaluating if there is a particular risk in driving on the road. It's wise to stay informed and be proactive. Consider these things:

  • Where are you driving? For example, is there housing, how dense is it, is there vegetation, forest, open fields, or other things that can affect your driving?
  • What does the road look like, and how is the traffic? Are there bumps, is the road particularly narrow or wide, are there potholes, are there missing lane markings, are there sidewalks, bike lanes, or is there a lack of lighting?

  • What things should you particularly pay attention to in the road's course? This includes intersections, roundabouts, curves, tunnels, hills, railway crossings, and road narrowing.
  • How is the traffic? Dense, slow-moving, is there congestion? Are there, for example, schools, stations, shopping centers, sports fields that can affect traffic?
  • What category of road is it? Country road, highway, expressway, or road with obstacles/safety equipment such as bumps or narrowings.

Surroundings of the road

Most accidents occur in cities, especially in densely populated areas. The surroundings play a significant role in safety, so you should be able to decipher them and take precautions accordingly.

  • When driving in urban areas, shopping streets, residential neighborhoods, and where there are children, you should be extra vigilant.
  • When passing pedestrians or vehicles stopped in built-up areas, approaching intersections, or making turns.
  • When seasons change, such as from autumn to winter and from winter to spring, roads can become slippery from tractor mud, moist in marshes, lakes, or depressions, and slippery due to fallen leaves.

Equipment or standards of the road

Sidewalk and bike lane

Here are a number of checkpoints so you can read the road and understand how the bike lane is used, both by cyclists and small mopeds. For all, you need to know them and react appropriately, both in light and darkness.

  • If you drive through an area without a sidewalk or bike lane, there is a greater risk of hitting pedestrians or cyclists. You cannot be sure they have lights or reflectors, so be extra careful and look carefully.
  • If cyclists and moped riders turn out from a bike lane onto the roadway, they have an unconditional duty to yield and must always yield - except if the bike lane ends at an intersection. Be aware that they do not always yield.
  • Bike lanes are marked with the traffic sign 'Bike Lane'. You can also recognize them as a raised path or as part of the road, just with a white-painted bike lane and white stripe.
  • A 'cycle lane' can be recognized by a wide, dotted line or blue color, typically at intersections. Here you should also give space.
  • A double-directional bike lane is marked with the traffic sign 'Bike Lane' (D 21) and the sub-sign (UD 21.1), showing that cycling is allowed in both directions. You mark again when the double-directional bike lane stops.
  • A so-called super cycle path is marked with a special sign.

Crosswalks, footbridges, etc.

When it comes to footbridges for pedestrians and crosswalks, there are some things you need to know because accidents often happen. Pedestrians do not behave as you might expect. Therefore, you may more easily end up driving on pedestrians just before or after a crosswalk than if there is no crosswalk at all. Pedestrians tend to choose the shortest routes instead of going all the way to the crosswalk. Pedestrians will also often cross on the roadway, even if there is a footbridge or tunnel, because there is not much time to save by using them.

Road stripes

Stripes on the road (lane lines, stop lines, edge lines) are a help to you so you can be in the right place on the road in relation to other traffic. Keep a close eye on them, especially in the dark. If there are no stripes, you should be even more attentive because accidents are more likely.

Road width

  • The large, wide four-lane roads are not safer than the two-lane roads, not even concerning pedestrians. The risk is greatest in cities.
  • Accidents are more likely on narrow roads. Both as single accidents when there is oncoming traffic, when hitting mopeds and cyclists, and pedestrians.
  • Be particularly attentive at small side roads.

Median strip

  • The median strip on four-lane roads does not make them safer than roads without a median strip.

Road surface type and condition

Road grip is closely related to the road surface and is crucial for safety when driving. Road grip is important when accelerating, braking, and steering. If the road is wet or greasy, you should use the accelerator, clutch, brake, and steering wheel carefully and drive at a low speed. You should know that:

  • Dirt and gravel roads provide poor road grip. Drive slowly to avoid skidding when turning or braking.
  • Cobblestones provide better road grip than dirt and gravel roads. However, cobblestone roads become smoother.
  • The best road grip is on coarse asphalt with small stones. Drive slowly if stones have just been laid so you don't whirl stones up to stone chips. In the spring, there will often be holes and unevenness on the road after frost.
  • Heavy rain showers can make the road greasy and slippery, and heat waves can melt the asphalt surface, making the road slippery.

Speed bumps

If there are bumps on the road, you should not drive too fast over them, as it is uncomfortable for those in the car and can also damage the car. You should follow the traffic sign showing the maximum speed you should drive over the bump with. Buses and large trucks should drive slower than cars over bumps.

Road lighting

There is, of course, a big difference between driving in light or darkness. There is a much greater risk of accidents in darkness than on illuminated roads, and you should remember that when encountering other traffic. It can be difficult to orient yourself if there are many reflectors and light sources. This can cause glare and is particularly dangerous if there are pedestrians on the road.

Course of the road - intersections and roundabouts

Most accidents occur at intersections, both in rural and urban areas. Traffic converges and mixes here, increasing the risk of accidents. The four-legged intersections in rural areas (i.e., intersections with four side roads) without traffic lights are the most dangerous. Here, you need to be very attentive. Whether the road is wide or narrow doesn't matter for safety. Also, take note of whether there are stripes on the road because if there aren't any, it's harder to stay in the right place on the road, increasing the risk of accidents. A roundabout is safer for motorists compared to regular intersections. However, they are more dangerous for cyclists, who are often hit by motorists entering and exiting the roundabout. So, you need to be very careful when navigating roundabouts to prevent accidents.

Road curves

You need to be extra careful when driving around curves. The risk increases the sharper the curve is and in relation to the visibility, namely how well you can see ahead and what is coming towards you. You should also keep an eye out for soft shoulders, lane markings, or poles to assess the course of the road. Finally, it's a good idea to watch if the road leans to the 'right side', meaning downhill in the direction of the curve.


You should generally pay close attention when driving over a hilltop because you cannot see ahead and oncoming traffic well in advance. If the hill is steep, you can see even less, and it's wise to reduce speed at the foot of the hill. Always look back before slowing down so that others don't risk rear-ending your car.


When entering a tunnel from full daylight, you may momentarily have difficulty seeing properly. If it's a longer tunnel, make sure you have enough fuel to get through. Unfortunately, it often happens that motorists run out of fuel in a tunnel, and it's dangerous to stop.

Railway crossings

Accidents at railway and tram crossings are often severe and fatal. This means you need to be particularly careful and attentive. If they are not marked with barriers, they are extra dangerous. Therefore, always keep a close eye on both lights, sounds, and, of course, barriers and other markings on the road. Never rely more on the technical measures than to think and do the right thing.

Road narrowings

In short, if you come to a place where the road narrows, there is an increased risk of accidents. You may end up colliding with cyclists, pedestrians, or mopeds, or other cars pressing in from behind or from the side.

Road usage

When driving in the city, you need to keep an eye on several things. Are there rush hours, is there extra traffic in general, or does the road serve a specific purpose such as ferry traffic, school traffic with many children, truck traffic to recycling centers, traffic to pedestrian zones, and parking garages? In general, you should be able to read the traffic in the area where you are driving during your practical driving lessons. Most accidents occur on roads with heavy traffic. The more traffic, and the more mixed it is, the higher the risk.

Road type or class

How are different types of roads marked? You need to learn about the following types:

  1. Motorway.
  2. Expressway.
  3. Main road.
  4. Areas with speed reduction.
  5. Pedestrian street.
  6. Cycle lane.
  7. Recreational and play area.
  8. Tunnel.