1. Introduction
  2. Performance requirements - theory, practice, and teaching
  3. Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents
  4. Maneuvers on the Closed Practice Area
  5. Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver
  6. Traffic behavior
  7. Road conditions
  8. Basic rules for driving
  9. Maneuvers on the road
  10. Special risk factors in traffic
  11. Maneuvers at driving technical facility

The easy theory book

Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver

In this chapter, we will go through how you can and should drive various vehicles classified under driving license category B. You should be able to navigate different situations and identify where it might be difficult to oversee traffic. This ability ensures that you do not put yourself or others in danger by getting too close. You should be able to connect what you have learned in theory with the practical training of driving on the road.

General information about maneuvering capabilities

Here you will learn the different terms for how a car is driven. Maneuvering capabilities are primarily about two things: speed and the ability to steer. You should know what the terms speed, acceleration, braking distance, steering, and orientation mean.


What are the different things called when describing speed in a car?

  • Acceleration ability refers to how quickly you can accelerate in the car.

  • Top speed is a figure representing how fast the vehicle can travel in its highest gear.

  • Braking ability is the opposite, indicating how quickly you can decelerate.

Steering characteristics

Various factors influence how easy it is to steer the car safely.

Steering generally depends on two things: how heavily the car is loaded and where the weight is distributed in the car. If most of the weight is on the rear wheels, the car is more sensitive to crosswinds and harder to steer. If the weight is in the front, it's easier to steer the car and maintain direction.

  • Steering responsiveness refers to how well the car responds when the steering wheel is turned.

  • Directional stability refers to how well the car maintains its direction when driving straight.

  • Crosswind sensitivity indicates how much the car is affected by crosswinds, such as on bridges.

Driver's ability to navigate

It's incredibly important to be able to navigate when driving a car. Therefore, you need to know a few things about what matters in terms of your ability to see clearly in all directions while driving. This is, of course, for the safety of yourself and others on the road.

Blind spots: The car's window frames, mirrors, bodywork, the driver's helmet, motor goggles, or visor can create blind spots.

Visibility: If the car's windows are dirty, icy, or fogged up, you cannot navigate properly, so they must be clean and clear before you drive.

Distractions: Remove caps, scarves, or anything else that obstructs your vision. Loud music, noise from the car, or when wearing a helmet on a scooter/motorcycle can also prevent you from navigating properly. Of course, you can't take off the helmet; you just need to be aware that you might not hear everything.

Maneuvering characteristics of different vehicles

It's important to know how cars, buses, trucks, and trailers behave in traffic. This way, you can better assess what will happen in traffic. The same goes for tractors, motorcycles, mopeds, and bicycles. We'll go through them below.

Passenger and commercial vehicles

Passenger and commercial vehicles are the ones that drive the fastest, accelerate the quickest, and brake the best.

Also, be aware of how your own car accelerates compared to others. This is important when judging how quickly a car is approaching you from behind and when you need to start and stop at traffic lights, change lanes, or overtake.

Know that all cars have blind spots due to window frames, mirrors, and bodywork. Also, the front window pillars can create blind spots, preventing you from seeing what's coming from the side. The rear window frames can also create blind spots, preventing you from seeing what's coming from behind on both sides. This could be bicycles or mopeds, for example.

Be aware that external mirrors are not enough for you to navigate blind spots. Always use both the mirror and look over your shoulder when turning. This is naturally more difficult if the car's windows are obscured or, as in a van, you cannot see out of the rear window. In such cases, you need to be extra cautious. Familiarize yourself with blind spots in other types of vehicles. This can affect your safety if others have poor visibility. It varies for different types of vehicles and for buses, trucks, motorcycles. Be aware that other vehicles have different blind spots when changing lanes, driving in traffic, turning, or crossing roads. In short, you cannot always rely on other drivers having seen you – you need to be vigilant yourself. If the windows are covered in dirt, fog, ice, snow, or stickers, it can limit the driver's visibility, so you need to be particularly careful in those situations.

Trucks, including buses

Laden trucks cannot accelerate as quickly as passenger cars. This is important so that you do not collide with them, for example on the highway when the truck wants to merge or change lanes.

The rules of thumb are:

  • All trucks accelerate slowly and have difficulty braking quickly.
  • Tall trucks and box trucks without a heavy load can be particularly sensitive to crosswinds. This is important to know when, for example, overtaking and there is crosswind.
  • Medium-sized and very large trucks require a lot of space for turning. If they have a load that extends behind, they use even more space when turning. You should take this into account, for example, in intersections, or when driving past them/overtaking and the truck is turning.
  • Trucks have more and larger blind spots than passenger cars.
  • They have large exterior mirrors, but this creates blind spots forward.
  • On the sides of the truck, there are such large blind spots that they can obscure smaller vehicles.
  • Truck cabins are soundproofed, so you cannot assume that the driver has heard you.

Cars with trailers

This is what you need to know about cars with trailers, such as trailers or caravans.

When a car has a trailer, it often accelerates poorly. They are not allowed to drive as fast as cars without trailers, and they brake more slowly. You need to know what this means for safety in traffic and how to handle it. Cars with trailers/caravans/trailers easily sway and slip out, for example when braking hard, when there is side wind, or when it is slippery.

You should also be aware that cars with trailers need as much space to turn as large trucks. It is also more difficult for the driver of a car with a caravan to orientate. This means that you need to be more attentive when overtaking or changing lanes near a car with a caravan.

Tractors, including motor implements

If you encounter a tractor, excavator, bulldozer, or similar vehicle while driving, there are things you need to be aware of. Tractors accelerate quickly but move slowly. They are allowed to drive at a maximum speed of 40 km/h. Therefore, they have a red triangle indicating 'slow-moving vehicles'. You should be aware that tractors and tractor-trailers brake slowly. If the tractor has a trailer and brakes hard while turning, it can overturn. Overall, you should keep a close eye on what is happening on the road when there are larger vehicles.

You should do this because:

  • Tractors with implements on the back are unstable and easily sway. A tractor with a trailer skids just as easily as cars with trailers. Tractors and large motor vehicles (excavators, bulldozers, etc.) require as much space to turn as trucks. The space required for maneuvering with a trailer is the same as for large vehicles with trailers. The driver may have difficulty seeing backward, especially with a heavy load or implements. You cannot assume that the driver has seen you. Engine noise also makes it difficult for the driver to hear audible signals, so you cannot assume they hear you. Trailered implements often have signal lights because they are wider than other vehicles. You should take this into account when overtaking. If the tractor has an extended loader, it can tilt so violently when driving that the wheels lose contact with the road. A tractor can have up to two attached trailers. Therefore, make sure to assess the situation well if you need to overtake a tractor. If the tractor has a wide trailer, it may be marked with yellow flashing lights.


If you encounter a motorcycle in traffic, you should know that motorcycles accelerate much faster than cars and can travel at higher speeds. This is important to know when:

  • You are entering from a side road.
  • You are turning left in front of an oncoming motorcyclist.
  • You are changing lanes or coming to a stop at a red light.

Motorcycles can easily be mistaken for mopeds, which, however, travel much slower. You can identify a motorcycle by its wider tires and sturdier frame, as well as by the size and color of the license plate compared to a moped's. However, some motorcycles are not much larger than mopeds, making it easy to make mistakes. Motorcycles are more prone to skidding out in slippery conditions compared to cars and other vehicles. If they are large and heavy motorcycles, they also have more difficulty turning than smaller, lighter ones. You should take this into account when encountering them in curves. You should also be aware that motorcycles are very sensitive to crosswinds.

A motorcyclist may have difficulty seeing and hearing you because of the helmet, visor, goggles, and possibly windshield, all of which limit their ability to orient themselves. The same applies if there is dirt, fog, or rain on these surfaces. If the motorcyclist is not wearing sunglasses, they may squint or turn their face away from the road, which may cause them not to see you. Therefore, you should be extra vigilant. If there are no mirrors on the motorcycle, you should also be extra attentive, as the rider does not always turn to look backward.

Motorcyclists can be difficult to predict in traffic. You should know that they are quicker to change lanes. They may zigzag through traffic and are more prone to weaving. A motorcycle also pulls to the sides during certain maneuvers, which you should be aware of. When braking, it pulls to the left. When accelerating, it pulls to the right. If you can see that there is a passenger on the motorcycle and they are sitting rigidly (not leaning to the same side as the rider in a turn), you should be alert, as this may increase the risk of tipping over.

If the motorcycle has a sidecar, it is less stable than a regular motorcycle – especially in turns and at intersections, you should be aware of this. A motorcycle with a sidecar may tend to sway, and it often accelerates and brakes less effectively than regular motorcycles.


Mopeds can accelerate as fast as smaller motorcycles. However, their maximum allowed speed is much lower. You can distinguish a moped from a motorcycle by looking at the size and color of the license plate. There are different speeds. Large mopeds are allowed to drive 45 km/h; small mopeds are allowed to drive 30 km/h. This is important when assessing them in traffic.

Mopeds are not good at braking quickly, so you should be careful when turning and stopping at traffic lights. When they brake hard, they can skid or tip over. If they are driving very slowly, they can easily wobble. The same happens when they are starting, driving uphill, or have large or heavy luggage. They are sensitive to side winds and can easily wobble, which is important for you to know if you need to pass or overtake.

If the moped rider does not have a visor on their helmet, they may tend to squint or turn their face away from the road – especially if it is raining or snowing. Then it is not certain that they see you.


You need to know different things about bicycles in traffic so you can take precautions. Bicycles belong to slow vehicles. However, there is a big difference because the new types of electric bikes sometimes ride as fast as mopeds and racing bikes - or faster. It can be difficult to judge, so be attentive.

  1. Bicycles brake only slowly, and when braking heavily, they can easily skid or tip over.
  2. Keep an eye on how fast bicycles are moving in city traffic, for example when they cross roads, and when you need to turn, so you don't hit a bicycle - both those coming from behind and those coming towards you.
  3. Bicycles easily sway and are sensitive to crosswinds, and this becomes more pronounced when heavily loaded or with children. Of course, children need extra consideration as they are not accustomed to traffic and are more unpredictable than other cyclists.
  4. Cyclists generally have an easy time orienting themselves because there is nothing obstructing their view. But they need to turn their heads to see behind them, and they don't always do that because it causes them to sway. Watch to see if they have noticed you.
  5. Like motorcyclists and moped riders, cyclists are exposed to weather conditions. If it's raining, the sun is shining strongly, or it's snowing, they will typically turn their faces to the side - and then they don't orient themselves as well. Watch to see if they have noticed you.