1. Introduction
  2. Performance requirements - theory, practice, and teaching
  3. Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents
  4. Maneuvers on the Closed Practice Area
  5. Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver
  6. Traffic behavior
  7. Road conditions
  8. Basic rules for driving
  9. Maneuvers on the road
  10. Special risk factors in traffic
  11. Maneuvers at driving technical facility

The easy theory book

Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents

In this chapter, you will learn enough about the car's interior and equipment, and how it functions, so you can drive correctly and safely when performing various maneuvers.

You also need to learn about the most important regulations regarding the car's equipment, such as lights, braking distance, and seat belts, so you can identify faults that affect safety while driving.

The same applies when it comes to environmental and safety concerns. Here, you also need to know what is important for driving environmentally friendly. The third thing you need to learn is which documents should be in the car when you drive, such as the vehicle registration certificate.

You should be able to locate the parts used when driving the car, both on the maneuvering area and on the road. When a light illuminates on the dashboard, you should also know what it means and what to do. Additionally, you need to know how the various components work - engine, accelerator, clutch, steering wheel, and brakes. You should be able to use all the parts correctly. More information about these things can be found in the section (Control, operation, adjustment, and use of equipment).

Controls and instruments

You need to learn how to operate the controls in the car, understand how to use them, and comprehend the instruments and warning lights on the car's dashboard.

You also need to know about how the engine, ignition, accelerator, clutch, gears, steering mechanism, and brakes work.


The controls are located throughout the car. When driving the car, there are several things you need to know and be able to do: where to start and stop the car, and how to use the various pedals - brake, clutch, and accelerator. You should be able to use the gears and gear stick, fasten and open the seatbelt, and adjust the mirrors correctly. Use the horn, lights, windshield wipers, and washer fluid correctly. Under the hood, there are several covers that you should be able to distinguish from each other: gasoline, oil, and coolant and washer fluid.

Instruments and warning lights

You need to know what the various lights and gauges mean on the dashboard: Speedometer and temperature gauge. Oil pressure and electrical gauge. The light that illuminates when the doors are not closed properly, and the lights indicating whether the lights are functioning properly. Finally, there are lights for the service brakes, handbrake, and airbags.

Engine, ignition, and accelerator

You need to know some basic things about the engine in a car. Understand how it operates with pistons, clutch, and gears, and that you control the engine's revolutions by pressing the accelerator. The engine starts with power - so if there is no power to the battery, you cannot start it. Release the key or start button as soon as the engine is running. If you are driving an electric car, you are running on battery or a combination of electric and gasoline (hybrid cars).


The clutch works by connecting the engine and gearbox, so when you press the clutch all the way down, there is no longer a connection between the engine and gearbox. Then the car stops moving forward. It should be pressed all the way down when starting and when shifting gears, otherwise you'll wear it out. It should always be released slowly, otherwise the car can 'jump' and stall. If the car has automatic transmission, there is no clutch pedal. So you can drive the car simply by pressing the accelerator.


The gearbox controls how fast you drive. The technical explanation is that when the engine starts, rotations are initiated, which are then transferred to the wheels. The gearbox is built up of gears of different sizes, which you control with the gear stick. If the car has automatic transmission, it happens automatically relative to the car's speed. Use a low gear when starting the car. Also use the lower gears when driving slowly, accelerating, and driving up steep hills. You generally use high gears when driving fast. Use reverse gear when you want to drive backward. If there are noises, there may be a fault with the clutch or gearbox.

Steering mechanism - steering wheel and control

When you turn the steering wheel, the front wheels follow. The steering system is self-correcting, meaning that if you release the steering wheel while driving, the car will straighten itself. There are two types of assistance for steering the car: power steering and electronic stability control (ESC). Power steering makes it easier to turn the steering wheel, and ESC makes it more difficult to overturn and skid with the car because the wheels are braked if it's about to happen.


Brakes are a significant area in theory, and there are several things you need to know about them. First, there are wheel brakes. They work by pressing a brake lining with pressure from the brake fluid against a drum or disc on the car's wheel. This stops the wheel from turning. The pressure comes from a cylinder, through brake pipes and hoses to cylinders in the brakes. The brake also has a so-called brake booster. If it fails, you must not drive the car as it is dangerous.

Two-circuit brakes consist, as the name suggests, of two brake circuits. One, the emergency brake, kicks in if the other fails. It is illegal to continue driving if only one is working. You check this on the dashboard.

Anti-lock brakes (ABS) ensure that the wheels do not lock when you brake. This allows you to steer and brake at the same time. This is crucial if you are about to skid in slippery weather or need to brake hard and suddenly. ABS brakes work by sensors on the wheels detecting revolutions and sending a signal to an electronic control unit.

If the wheels are about to lock, this control unit can control the pressure in the brakes, causing them to shake, but that's intentional. If the ABS brake system is not working, you should drive to the nearest workshop. The last brake you need to know is the handbrake (also called the parking brake), which works in such a way that the car can stand still without the foot brake being pressed. It should be electrically operated. Finally, there is a brake assistant that fully activates the ABS and reduces the car's speed as quickly as possible.

Topic test

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Legal regulations on car interior and equipment

You need to know what equipment should be in a car. You also need to know what it means when lights on the dashboard illuminate, flash, or sound. If that happens, you need to know what to do: whether you should stop, can continue driving, or need to go to a workshop.

You should be able to check the equipment in the car and explain if there are any faults or if something is missing. This also applies to environmental conditions and safety in the car in general.

More information on the subject is available in the section (Control, operation, adjustment, and use of equipment).

Driver's and owner's responsibility

It is always the owner or the person registered as the user of the car who is responsible for ensuring that it is legal. Additionally, the person driving the car is responsible for ensuring that it is safe and proper to drive while underway.

The person driving the car should, in general, ensure that the car is in good condition. This especially applies to steering, brakes, lights, and horn. If you are towing a trailer, you must ensure that it is properly attached.

Steering mechanism - steering wheel and control

Regarding the steering system, there are legal requirements you need to know and some things you should be aware of and able to check.

Firstly, the car must be easy, safe, and quick to steer. It must not be so worn that there is play in the steering wheel as such - or in individual parts.

Even when driving slowly, you should be able to turn from side to side without resistance or noise. Regarding the brakes, you should know what 'Electronic Stability Control' (ESC or ESP) is and what Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) is. They make the car more stable, especially in turns.

Checking the steering: There must be no play in the steering wheel. This means that the wheels should immediately follow when you turn. If there is play in the steering wheel, you should check the fluid level and check the control lamp for fluid level.

If the car is power-steered, they should be able to do the same, just with the engine running.

If the car has power steering, they should be able to do the same, just with the engine running. Cars with power steering have a fluid reservoir. You check by seeing if it is between the min. and max. marks. You can also see if there is a problem with the fluid level if the control lamp is lit. If you experience that the car is heavy or difficult to steer, it may be because there is a lack of fluid in the power steering reservoir. Perhaps the drive belts are worn or broken, or there is a power failure in the power steering system.


The service brake must work on all wheels, so the car can brake safely and quickly at all speeds and loads. The parking brake must be able to hold the car securely, even on a sloping road.

You should be able to check the brakes in general, and therefore you should also know the types:

  • A hydraulic service brake (ordinary brake) can either be vacuum-assisted or electrically assisted.
  • The emergency brake must be able to stop the car safely if the service brake fails.
  • You must not be able to press the brake pedal all the way to the floor.
  • The brake must not sink further down while you press hard on it when it is fully depressed.
  • The fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir must be between the min. and max. marks.
  • The warning light must not be lit.

Checking the brakes: When the brakes behave in a certain way, you need to know what it means. You also need to know what braking distance means.

If the car pulls to one side when you brake lightly, there is probably a fault in the brake system. It could be moisture or dirt on the brake linings. The wheels must not 'lock' when you brake. It could be faults in the brake drums, discs, or linings. If you suddenly can press the brake further down than usual, typically one of the brake circuits is broken.

The braking distance is the distance the car travels from when you press the brake until the car comes to a complete stop. The braking distance also depends on how hard you press the brake.

There are different situations where you should check the brakes immediately. The faster you drive, the longer the braking distance, i.e., from the moment you press the brake until the car comes to a complete stop. Pay attention to these situations:

  • Too little brake fluid in the brake fluid reservoir.
  • The warning light illuminates during driving.
  • If the brake pedal can be pressed further down than normal.
  • If the car brakes unevenly, or the car pulls to one side when you brake.
  • If the ABS brake system warning light does not go out shortly after starting the car, you should drive to the nearest workshop.
  • If the ESC system warning light illuminates, follow the instructions in the car's instruction manual.

Lights, reflectors, and horn

There are several things you need to know about lights, reflectors, and horns. The car must only have required or permitted lights and reflectors.

They are divided into two categories: required lights and reflectors, and permitted lights and reflectors. Required lights and reflectors include:

Two headlights with high beams, two headlights with asymmetric low beams, two position lights, two taillights, and at least one license plate light.


Three brake lights (older cars may suffice with two brake lights). Two turn signals at the front and rear of the car and one on each side of the car.

Two red approved and labeled reflectors facing backward. They must not be triangular. There are also requirements for how far they must be visible.

The high beam (the long light) should illuminate the road at least 100 meters ahead of the car. The low beam should illuminate the road at least 30 meters ahead of the car without dazzling, and the position light should be clearly visible at a distance of at least 300 meters without dazzling. License plate lights should be white and illuminate the license plate so that it can be clearly read at a distance of at least 20 meters.

All lights and reflectors should be free of cracks, scratches, or other defects. Headlights should emit white or yellowish light, and the bulbs should be screwed in correctly. You can check this by shining the light on a wall and seeing if there is a precise boundary between light and dark. Taillights should emit red light.

Finally, if your car is longer than 6 meters, it must have approved and labeled yellow side reflectors as well as lights on the sides of the car.

The permitted lights and reflectors are:

Extra high beam lights, daytime running lights, additional brake lights, additional taillights, fog lights, reverse lights, fog taillights, search and work lights, delineation and marker lights, parking lights, and passing lights, for which there are special rules. The car may also have white reflectors at the front, yellow reflectors on the sides, and additional red reflectors at the rear.

Checklist guide - you should be able to answer yes to all:

  1. Are all lights and reflectors intact and clean, and can all lights illuminate?
  2. Does the low beam not blind (it should point downwards, so the top edge of the light falls 1 cm per m)?
  3. Do the brake lights shine brighter than the tail lights?
  4. Do the turn signals shine yellow, and are they clearly visible, even in sunlight?
  5. Does the hazard lights turn on all turn signals simultaneously?
  6. Do the license plate lights shine white? There must be at least light on the rear license plate.
  7. Do the lights in a pair (headlights, tail lights, etc.) match in color and intensity?
  8. Does the horn have a clear, constant tone?
  9. Do the turn signals work? If there is a fault, it is often seen by them flashing faster than normal.

Engine and exhaust system, etc.

Engine and exhaust check:

The engine should not emit black smoke or noise. The exhaust must be tight and securely attached, and there should be enough engine oil in the car. You can measure this on the dipstick, where it should be between min. and max. Use the car's instruments/lights, and follow the instructions in the owner's manual. There should be enough coolant, which you can also check following the instructions in the manual. You should be aware that if the exhaust is leaking, or you drive with the rear hatch open, carbon monoxide can seep into the car, which is dangerous.

It can damage the engine if there is too little engine oil or coolant in the car. If there is black smoke from the exhaust, there is a fault in the engine or air filter. If you accelerate and there is abnormal noise, there is also a fault in the exhaust. If you accelerate but the car does not go faster, there is a fault in the clutch. If it is difficult to shift gears, or there is noise, there is a fault in the gearbox or clutch, and if the car still rolls forward even though you have pressed the clutch, there is a fault in the clutch.

Energy- and environmentally friendly driving

You should drive in an environmentally friendly manner, which means starting the engine just before you need to drive. Avoid letting the car idle for extended periods and refrain from sudden acceleration and heavy braking. Choosing a higher gear consumes less fuel, so use the appropriate gear for your speed. Drive smoothly, shift gears early, and aim for the highest gear possible. If the car is heavily loaded, it will consume more energy, as will underinflated tires. Roof boxes, luggage on the roof, air conditioning, and other electrical instruments consume energy.

However, driving energy-efficiently can save up to 5-10 percent on fuel consumption, sometimes even up to 25 percent.

How to Drive Energy- and Environmentally Friendly:

Be anticipatory and attentive to achieve smooth driving without hard braking and rapid accelerations. When approaching intersections, for example, assess whether you can continue (if the light is green) or if you need to slow down in advance (if it appears the light will turn yellow or red).

You can also reduce environmental impact by driving outside of rush hours and carpooling with others, choosing an economical, non-polluting vehicle. Avoid noisy or excessively smoky driving, especially in residential areas, and if you do, be mindful of not disturbing others. Also, be aware of whether it's prohibited to idle where you stop. Many municipalities have restrictions on idling for more than 1 or 3 minutes.

Structural components

The structural components in a car include tires and bodywork. Here are the things you need to know about structural components. Tires, rims, and wheel bearings must not have any faults or damages, and the same type of tires must be fitted on all wheels. If there is a spare wheel in the car, it can be of a different type. There should be equal pressure in all tires, and the tires must have at least 1.6 millimeters of tread depth. A car also has shock absorbers, which you can check by pushing the car hard and observing if it quickly settles afterward.

You can detect faults in tires and wheels if the tires wear unevenly or unevenly. The car's wheels should turn as much as you turn the steering wheel, and if they do not, there may be incorrect or different tire pressures. Finally, the car should not creak, as this indicates faults in wheel suspension, springs, or shock absorbers. In case of any such faults, make sure to take the car to a workshop.


The body of a car consists of the following parts:

  • The roof, sides of the car, and fenders.
  • Bonnet and boot lid.
  • Doors and chassis.

There should not be any sharp edges or parts protruding from the car's body, as it can be dangerous for other road users. Additionally, the car's body should not be so damaged by rust that it poses a danger in traffic – meaning it is corroded by rust. Furthermore, doors, bonnet, and boot lid must have locks so they can be closed when driving.

Special equipment

There must be approved seat belts on all seats, approved head restraints on the front seats, windshield wipers and washers. All parts must function properly. The car must have a rearview mirror and a left side mirror, but it is only necessary to have an external right side mirror if the rear window is obstructed. You should also remember to have an approved warning triangle in the car, which you can set up when required. There should always be enough windshield washer fluid in the car for the journey you are going to make.

Special vehicles

When you have a driving license for a regular car (category B), you are allowed to drive a passenger car up to 3,500 kg. However, you are also allowed to drive the following special vehicles:

Van and trailer for passenger and cargo vehicles, so-called quadricycle, 3-wheeled motorcycle, ATV, large moped, tractor, and motorized implement. All can be driven with a regular car driving license (category B).

The special rules for the vehicle's design and equipment relate to length and width, permissible load and permissible total weight, brakes, lights, tires, mirrors, and connection to the trailer. You should be familiar with the conditions for special vehicles if you are going to drive one.

Vehicle documents

You need to have various documents with you when driving.

Registration certificate

Your car must have a registration certificate. It contains various data about the car:

The car's curb weight, which is its weight without fuel, oil, and coolant.

The car's ready-to-drive weight, which is the car's weight plus 125 kg.

The car's permissible total weight, i.e., the highest permissible weight including fuel, coolant, and motor oil plus driver, passenger, and cargo, i.e., what it may carry, such as a trailer.

The maximum weight of the trailer. This is only listed on the certificate if it is approved to tow specific trailers such as a trailer, caravan, or tools. As a rule of thumb, you may tow a trailer up to a maximum of 750 kg. However, the rules are generally quite complicated for what special trailers may weigh when you have a driver's license for a car, so if in doubt, you should ask the police.

In Denmark, you can suffice with a copy of the certificates. If you drive abroad, you must have the car's registration certificate and, if applicable, the trailer's registration certificates with you.