1. Introduction
  2. Performance requirements - theory, practice, and teaching
  3. Car interior, equipment, operation, and documents
  4. Maneuvers on the Closed Practice Area
  5. Cars and other vehicles' ability to maneuver
  6. Traffic behavior
  7. Road conditions
  8. Basic rules for driving
  9. Maneuvers on the road
  10. Special risk factors in traffic
  11. Maneuvers at driving technical facility

The easy theory book

Traffic behavior

In this chapter, you will learn about what matters for your own and others' safety, namely your perception, attention, and reaction abilities. This applies not only if you have consumed alcohol or drugs but also if you have had too little sleep, are agitated, or are otherwise physically or mentally affected. In other words, you need to be proactive about your perception and reaction abilities so that you drive safely and environmentally consciously and behave well and considerately in traffic. Similarly, you need to understand and anticipate how others in traffic react. This enables you to better respond to others' mistakes and perhaps thoughtlessness in traffic. It helps ensure that you drive safely and according to the conditions. You also need to know how to accommodate special road users.

Perception and reaction

Your primary task in traffic is to be attentive to dangers and signals from the road, traffic, your own vehicle, and yourself (if you are tired, impaired, or otherwise). You should be familiar with reaction times, such as braking, and be fully aware of how your attitude, behavior, and experience can affect your own and others' driving and safety. You should know what can affect your perception and reaction time.

Driver's Main tasks

  1. How safely you drive depends not only on how well you can operate the car, but equally on how you perceive and judge the conditions. If you are in any way physically or mentally off balance, you may become inattentive.
  2. Lack of attention, incorrect perception, and misjudgment of traffic contribute to the majority of traffic accidents. That's why it's so important to be attentive when driving. It's mostly about what you see – being able to perceive correctly.

Reaction time

Reaction time: It's the time elapsed from when you have the opportunity to see something you need to react to until you actually do it. That is, when you hit the brake, turn the steering wheel, etc. You can't rely on reacting at the same speed every time – it depends, for example, on traffic conditions, your attention, and driving ability (your experience).

Limitations of perception and reaction

Typically, you can perceive and react to at most 2-3 details, hazards, or signals per second. So, you won't be able to see all the things that could be dangerous, and you should take that into account. Avoid keeping your eyes in the same place for too long at a time, so you have a better chance of noticing if there's danger ahead.

Improving perception and reaction

Things or events that can distract your attention while driving should be given special attention, as they can divert your attention from the traffic and increase the risk of accidents. Learn to recognize different danger signs and signals so you can anticipate what will happen in traffic. Also, know your own limitations as a driver, and always use your common sense when assessing traffic situations.

Mobile phones and driving

Around 80 percent of all Danes have a mobile phone, and many use it even while driving. It's a dangerous combination because the phone takes your attention away from the traffic and can affect you in various ways that make you unsafe while driving.

Overall, you are not allowed to talk on a handheld mobile phone while driving. Naturally, you are also not allowed to send text messages. Be aware that when you talk on a mobile phone, regardless of the circumstances, you can become distracted and stressed. This lowers reaction time and can create dangerous situations for you and others on the road.

Stress is a major contributing factor to distraction. Turn off or end the call if you feel like you are losing control or becoming stressed.

Inattention and distraction

Concentrate when you drive – it's not just the mobile phone that can divert your attention from driving and traffic. Common things like adjusting the radio, searching for something in your bag or glove compartment, or if the kids are noisy in the back seat, can be very distracting. Concentration is especially important if you have to drive safely with disturbances around you. If you can get help from a passenger, do so, or get the situation under control when you are stopped.

If you are unbalanced because you are highly agitated, upset, or worried, you are also not very attentive. You can therefore be a danger to other road users, and you may consider whether you should drive or if someone else can drive for you.

Vision and movement

Your vision is important when you drive. You use it to assess the road and traffic, but you also use it to maintain your course and to perform various maneuvers safely and accurately.

Direction of vision and movement

Look ahead - orient yourself by looking ahead. You typically turn your head in the direction you are driving. So look forward when driving straight ahead, and move your gaze away from things you need to avoid.

In road curves without a centerline, it can help to let your gaze follow the inner edge of the road. If there is a centerline, follow the centerline in left turns. When turning at an intersection, do not focus too long on other road users. Instead, look in the direction you are turning after completing the turn.

Assessment of distance and speed

It's difficult to assess distance and speed accurately. You need to be able to consider this when driving. Here are some indications of what you can assess and how distance affects your assessment of distance.

Assessment of distance

You can roughly assess distances up to 50 meters. Distances over 50 meters are often overestimated. Therefore, you may think that the distance to, for example, the other car, bicycle, or pedestrian is longer than it actually is when the distance is over 50 meters. You are more likely to misjudge distance if you drive without fixed points such as trees, intersections, or buildings.

Assessment of own speed

You assess your speed through the noise and vibrations in the car, landmarks along the road such as trees, houses, or road markings, and the speedometer. It's easy to become 'speed blind' when you've been driving for a while, or if the car you're driving has a low noise level or good suspension. Remember the speed limits, even when transitioning from a highway to a country road, where the speed limits are lower.

Assessment of others' speed

It's usually easy to assess another driver's speed if they're driving under 50 km/h. But if they're driving faster, you can easily come to believe that they're driving slower than they actually are. The further away another car or vehicle is, the harder it is to judge speed. If the vehicle is more than 200 meters away, most people cannot accurately judge its speed. Avoid taking chances, as other cars may be traveling faster than you think, and you cannot accurately judge the speed.

Regulation on driving ability and health

There are regulations on what you may consume in terms of alcohol, medication, stimulants, or sedatives, and narcotics, as it can affect your ability to drive. Fatigue, illness, or similar conditions can also affect your driving, posing a danger to other road users.


If you have consumed alcohol, you become impaired, and the risk of accidents increases. Generally, you will find it more difficult to focus, and your perception and reaction time will decrease, even if you have only consumed a small amount of alcohol/drugs. Even if you have under the legal limit of 0.5 per mille alcohol in your blood, you may find it difficult to react quickly and appropriately in situations.

Driving under the influence of alcohol is generally severely punished, so be aware:

  • You will be charged with drunk driving if you have over 0.5 per mille alcohol in your blood.
  • You can also be punished if you drive unsafely with alcohol in your blood, even if you have under 0.5 per mille.
  • If you have over 0.5 and up to 2.0 per mille, you will (first time) receive a large fine.
  • If you have a higher blood alcohol level, you will, in addition to the fine, receive a prison sentence, and the car may be confiscated.
  • If you have over 0.5 per mille but under 1.2 per mille, you will receive a conditional revocation of your driver's license for 3 years. If you have held your driver's license for less than 3 years, you will receive a driving ban. To regain your driver's license, you must take a new driving test and complete a course on alcohol and traffic, which you must pay for yourself. For higher blood alcohol levels, you will usually have your driver's license revoked unconditionally. If you have previously been caught driving under the influence, the punishment will be harsher.

There are some options to consider if you are faced with a dilemma regarding alcohol and driving. If you know you are going to a party where alcohol will be served, do not drive there. Figure out how to get home - and if you cannot use public transportation, find a solution: stay overnight, walk home, or pool money with others for a taxi. You are not only responsible for yourself, so do not allow anyone to drive if they have been drinking, neither your own nor anyone else's. ¼ of all accidents, many of which end in death for one or more of those involved, are related to drunk driving.

The police can always demand a breathalyzer test from drivers - but also from anyone who has been in control of the vehicle, who is just as responsible as the driver and can be punished just as harshly: 'Driving the vehicle' does not mean sitting in the driver's seat; as a passenger, you can also be charged if you have attempted to touch the steering wheel, gear stick, handbrake, or ignition. Of course, never ride in a car where the driver has been drinking, or you suspect they have.

What are the risks?

As mentioned, there are strict penalties for driving with alcohol in your system. If your blood alcohol level is over 1.5 and under 2.0, your net income is multiplied by the blood alcohol level. That means if you earn 20,000 kr. net, multiply by 1.5, and you will receive a fine of 30,000 kr. If you are over 2.0, there will be both a fine, community service/prison sentence. In addition, mandatory alcohol courses and a new theory and driving test are required. If it happens multiple times, you may also be required to install an expensive alcohol lock in the car. You can familiarize yourself with the various enhanced sanctions that society has in place to prevent drunk driving.


If you have taken drugs and certain types of medication, you become impaired, and the risk of accidents increases. If you have also consumed alcohol with the drugs, the risk of accidents becomes much greater. Both are, of course, illegal. Generally, if you have taken drugs (hashish, ecstasy, amphetamines) or certain types of medication, known as consciousness-altering substances, you will be punished with a fine and unconditional revocation of your driving license the first time. If it repeats, the punishment increases, as does the punishment depending on how much THC you have in your blood. This is called the step ladder model.

If you are caught driving with THC or other drugs in your system, you must, in addition to a fine/conditional revocation of your driver's license, take a course on drugs/substances and traffic (ANT course). You must pay for this yourself.

As with drunk driving, you may not allow anyone to drive either your own or someone else's car if you know or even suspect they have taken drugs. And just like with drunk driving, the police can at any time demand a saliva or sweat test or examine your eyes. Better methods are continually being developed to detect drug use, including measuring the eyes/pupils.

Your driving instructor should explain the very specific rules and limits for alcohol, drugs, and medication, so you are never in doubt about the risk you are exposing yourself and others to, or the punishment for doing so. The shorter the time you have had a driver's license (anything under 3 years), the stricter the punishment.

Sickness, medication, fatigue, and similar

You must not drive a car if you are under the influence of medication. You must also not drive if you are sick or very tired.

This applies generally:

Your perception and reaction abilities worsen if you are sick or have taken medication: nerve or sleeping medication, strong cough or painkillers, or medication for allergies, motion sickness, or similar. All these types have a sedative effect, making it more difficult to stay alert and drive safely. Medication has a more sedative effect if you also consume alcohol. The punishment for driving with medication in your system and driving impaired, sick, overtired, or similar is similar to driving with alcohol in your system, and you may have your driver's license revoked and have to complete an ANT course to get it back.

If you are unsure about which type of medication is prohibited when driving, look for a red triangle on the packaging. If there is a red triangle, it means that your reaction time decreases when taking the medication. In general, talk to your doctor about it if you are unsure.

It is not only medication that can affect your ability to drive safely. If you are tired, physically or mentally, consider whether you should drive. A long and strenuous day, too little sleep, or major emotional swings contribute to making you more inattentive. One often tends to underestimate how much it affects them. The circadian rhythm is also very important when driving a car. For example, it is often a very bad idea to drive when you usually sleep or relax.

Just like with alcohol and drugs, you must not allow a person to drive your or anyone else's car if you know or suspect that the person has taken medication, is sick, or very tired.

Other road users behavior

The things you have learned about how you are affected, how you react, and how you perceive traffic apply in principle to everyone. Everyone has limited perception and reaction abilities in one way or another. However, most accidents occur within the following groups, so you should pay extra attention to them:

  1.   Pedestrians, 5-10 years old
  2. Cyclists, 10-15 years old
  3. Moped riders, 15-19 years old
  4. Motorcyclists, 18-22 years old
  5. Drivers, 18-24 years old
  6. Elderly pedestrians and cyclists, 70 years and older.

Age-related challenges

Depending on age, there are some things to consider with different groups:

Pedestrian children

Small children (up to 5-6 years old) cannot safely navigate traffic, especially not alone, so you should be even more attentive, slow down, and be ready to brake as they may suddenly run onto the road. Avoid using the horn as it may cause panic reactions.

Children aged 6-10 generally know the most important traffic rules. However, they may have difficulty understanding that they also need to be careful, even if others should yield, such as at pedestrian crossings and traffic lights.

The youngest school children have difficulty being fully aware of traffic. They are impulsive and take a long time to look around, and they are unsure when judging speed and distance. As a driver, you cannot think, "The child must know." You must take all precautions when there are children on the road.

Cycling children

Many small children have difficulty riding a bike. They often use the bike as a toy, and even older children have difficulty steering the bike when they need to look behind them and maintain balance. Therefore, they are insecure in traffic, and many accidents happen among children aged 10 to 15.

Youth on mopeds, motorcycles, and in cars

Youth are the group involved in the most accidents/incidents. They lack enough experience to avoid them, and they may have issues with their attitude towards traffic and how to drive and behave in it. When it comes to youth in traffic, you should know that they lack experience. Typical problems include driving too fast, too close, or having difficulty judging the technical aspects of driving (what is appropriate in different situations). This also applies to assessing how other road users will react. Some young people even use the car to test boundaries or to vent. This is very dangerous in traffic.

The positive aspect is that most young people who have just obtained their driver's license know what it means to drive considerately and have the right attitudes to behave correctly and drive according to the conditions. Unfortunately, other drivers do not always know this. It can be challenging if other road users provoke them by driving recklessly or not understanding traffic and safety. In such situations, it's important for young drivers to remain calm and composed to maintain safety for themselves and others.


Elderly pedestrians behave differently in traffic compared to other groups. They may have difficulty seeing and hearing and are often less attentive and more insecure than others. They may also have difficulty walking and forget to look around because they fully trust traffic lights and that others will yield to them.

Many elderly people are generally fearful of traffic and easily startled by cars driving quickly or passing too closely. This can cause panic and even more insecurity.

It's important to be mindful of young, elderly, and child pedestrians and cyclists in traffic. Observe the different types of road users and don't treat them as a homogeneous group. Consider how they look, how they cycle/walk, and then adjust your driving accordingly.

Assessing other road users

You need to learn to assess the other road users you encounter. This way, you can react appropriately to them, avoiding dangerous situations.

Characteristics of age, attention, and intent

You can assess the age of other road users based on factors such as their height, hair growth and color, posture, the way they walk, clothing, and specific items that certain age groups use. This could be a cane, toys, or similar objects. Notice how attentive they are by observing where they are looking. Also, pay attention to whether they are unaware of traffic, such as if they are using their phone. If a road user has serious vision problems, they often carry a white cane and/or a traffic sign for blind and visually impaired people – a person with a white cane.

Typical mistakes of vulnerable road users

Here are the characteristics that apply to different types of vulnerable road users and how you should drive when you encounter them. In short, you should be able to anticipate their intentions and to some extent their actions.

  • Small children are unpredictable in traffic. Always reduce speed and be prepared to brake. If you can see that they are about to cross the road, be even more vigilant because they cannot keep an eye on traffic in all directions and can easily get distracted.
  • When it comes to children on bicycles, you should know that they often end up crossing intersections without looking, pulling out from side roads or driveways without looking, or making left turns without checking behind. You must always be attentive and ready to brake.
  • Youths often make mistakes at intersections, when making left turns, and by driving too fast.
  • Elderly pedestrians often forget to look before crossing at traffic lights or pedestrian crossings. Keep an eye out and be prepared to yield. In general, you should reduce your speed so you have the best opportunity to brake.

Dine holdninger og egen adfærd

Når du skal køre godt og sikkert i trafikken, er der nogle grundregler, du skal kende og følge.


You should overall be positive and helpful towards others in traffic, even when they drive poorly or make mistakes. You should be particularly helpful and considerate when passing roadwork. The same applies when encountering emergency vehicles. Move to the right lane while signaling if they are approaching from behind. If you are in the second lane on a two-lane road, you should move to the left toward the median while signaling, allowing the emergency vehicle to pass between cars. At intersections, you can move forward and to the side to make space. Keep an eye on the rearview mirror if you hear sirens.

One can get irritated if others drive unsafely, get agitated, shout, or anything else. Let others pass and hold onto the fact that you should drive correctly and considerately, even if you are provoked by others' mistakes. If someone needs to pass quickly, move to the side so they can get by.


Overall, be proactive and aware of the risks of driving aggressively, too fast, using the horn, or threatening others. It is only a nuisance and serves no purpose, especially not in tense situations.

Also, give plenty of space to large vehicles that need to turn, reverse, or do anything else that requires extra space. Yield so they can maneuver.

Remember that sudden braking and acceleration are dangerous for traffic safety. Therefore, refrain from driving too close to others, even if they are driving slowly and hesitantly. Be cautious around road workers and avoid driving too closely. According to new, stricter rules, you will have your driver's license revoked if you drive more than 40 percent over the speed limit in roadwork zones.

Avoid using the horn for drivers who are a bit slow to start at a traffic light. Also, refrain from using the horn or flashing lights at drivers who merge in front of you and reduce the safety distance. Be aware that even though you may be driving safely, others may not necessarily do so. Instead, drive according to the conditions, focus on your own driving, and be tolerant. That way, you will drive safest.

A situation can escalate to become overwhelming very quickly. So, be ready to brake and be extra vigilant. Move your foot to the brake and be prepared to stop quickly.

Before you drive

Before you get behind the wheel, you need to know yourself and your state of mind. Are you balanced and in control of yourself? Do you honestly assess yourself in terms of age, experience, and reaction time? If you're feeling imbalanced because you're upset, angry, very sad, or worried, there's an increased risk of accidents. Remember, you always need to be able to anticipate and assess traffic so you can see if a dangerous situation is developing. Driving too closely to other motorists, both in front and to the sides, can have serious consequences.

You might be inexperienced or have difficulty seeing at night. In that case, you need to be especially vigilant. The same goes if you're driving a car you're not familiar with. Therefore, you should familiarize yourself beforehand with how the lights, ventilation, and other equipment work. You should also be aware if the car is particularly worn or heavily loaded.

Risk blindness

One can become blind to risks in traffic. This often happens when one gains some experience in traffic and starts thinking, for example, 'it's not dangerous' or 'it usually goes well.' You forget to be attentive.

Therefore, you need to know some basic rules and be mature enough to see if you start taking chances and become blind to risks in traffic. Notice the following things, as they may be signs that you have become risk blind.

  • You do not reduce speed when the weather requires it, for example, when visibility is poor or the road conditions are bad - slippery, muddy, or otherwise. Even if others are driving fast, you should assess your own driving. It should be safe and according to the conditions.
  • You drive too close to the cars in front. This means that you cannot avoid driving into the car in front if it brakes suddenly.
  • You attend to other things in the car - radio, mobile phone, bag, or other things that distract you from driving.
  • You drive even though you are very tired. This means that you become inattentive.